A Church in Crisis: Pornography and Patriarchy by R. Kotz

A Church in Crisis: Pornography and Patriarchy by R. Kotz

(Link): A Church in Crisis: Pornography and Patriarchy by R. Kotz

Excerpts:

by R. Kotz, August 9, 2016

Our character as human beings is determined by what we do when no one is watching. When no one is watching, many in the church are watching porn.

Pornography has been declared a “public health crisis” by political officials.

At least a third of US men self-identify as being addicted to it.In April, (Link): Time magazine featured a front-page article exposing the harmful impact of porn on society.

Despite this, two-thirds of practicing Christians feel no guilt about their porn use.2 What does this extreme level of consumption (and lack of guilt about it) say about the condition of the church as a whole?

Continue reading “A Church in Crisis: Pornography and Patriarchy by R. Kotz”

Authors at The Federalist Keep Bashing Singleness in the Service of Promoting Marriage – Which Is Not Okay


Authors at The Federalist Keep Bashing Singleness in the Service of Promoting Marriage – Which Is Not Okay

In the last two months, I’ve seen two different editorials from conservative site The Federalist in support of marriage (or parenthood).

I’m a conservative. I am not in opposition to marriage or people choosing to have children.

My issue with other conservatives is that they are so paranoid of liberals and assume all liberals are anti-marriage and anti-parenthood to the degree that they leave no room for nuance, meaning, that unfortunately, many pro-marriage and pro-parenthood conservatives end up “trash talking” singleness and the state of being childless (or being childfree).

I’m a conservative woman who has never married, and I’ve never had children, yet I do not hate marriage or married people having children, and I am so tired of these conservative authors or pundits feeling it necessary to put down single or childless adults like myself in their quest to defend marriage and natalism – conservative single adults like myself get caught in the cross-fire.

If you are a conservative who believes too many liberals are anti-marriage or anti-parenthood, and you want to speak out in favor of either station, that’s fine with me, but as a single, childless, conservative woman, I do get very hacked off and offended to read these conservative articles and editorials whose authors assume that any and all single and childless (or childfree) adults are awful, selfish, anti-family, weird, under-developed, or jerks.

Not every one in the United States today who is single past the age of 30, or who is childless or is childfree, is a feminist, a liberal, a progressive, pro-abortion, Democrat, or anti-family.

So, to my fellow conservatives, stop assuming that all single adults who remain single by choice OR by circumstance, or who are childless or childfree, are terrible, selfish, or are baby-hating progressives.

There is ZERO NEED to defend or promote marriage by talking in a derogatory manner about singleness or the state of being childless or childfree.

Make your case in favor of marriage or natalism without resorting to insulting all single adults, or assuming and making the false case that all single adults hate marriage, hate babies, or vote Democrat.

Here is the first of two recent pro-marriage or pro-natalism editorials at conservative site The Federalist  that manage to work in insults and slams against single adults or singleness itself – which is totally shameful and unnecessary!

(Link):  Joy Behar Accidentally Admits Social Conservatives Were Right About Sex

Pertinent Excerpts:

BY: NATHANAEL BLAKE
December 10, 2021

… In particular, large numbers of unattached men are bad for society; having a family encourages men to be productive and protective, rather than idle drones or predators.
— end excerpts —

I mean, really? It’s not necessary or fair to refer to or describe men who remain single as being “idle drones or predators.”

I have a long-running list of news headlines at my blog (in this post) of married men (some who even work as church pastors) who were arrested for wife abuse, making child porn, or raping children.

Serial killer John Wayne Gacy was married to a woman, had two biological children by her, but he went on to rape and murder over two dozen young men. Did marriage and fatherhood make Gacy more “loving” and “giving?” No, no it did not.

Marriage does not stop a man from being “a predator.”

Continue reading “Authors at The Federalist Keep Bashing Singleness in the Service of Promoting Marriage – Which Is Not Okay”

What’s Wrong With PreMarital Sex, Cohabitation and Watching Porn? Apologist Sean McDowell Answers – Critique: Some Christians Marketing Sexual Abstinence as “Purity in Jesus”

What’s Wrong With PreMarital Sex, Cohabitation and Watching Porn? Apologist Sean McDowell Answers – Critique: Some Christians Marketing Sexual Abstinence as “Purity in Jesus”

I have a lot of commentary to make below this long article, because one of the topics I discuss below is one aspect that bugs me when reading how Christians have been addressing the topic of sexual abstinence and fornication for the past decade or so:

(Link): What’s Wrong With PreMarital Sex, Cohabitation and Watching Porn? Apologist Sean McDowell Answers

By Nicole Alcindor, December 20, 2021

While many Christians are taught that premarital sex and cohabitation aren’t advisable for many reasons, a growing number of single believers are following secular society’s model instead of the biblical model. 

In the most recent episode of “Challenging Conversations” on the edifi podcast network, host Jason Jimenez, who’s also a pastor and founder of Stand Strong Ministries, was joined by apologist Sean McDowell to discuss why some 60% of professing Christians believe cohabitation and sex outside of marriage are OK.

Jimenez said he and McDowell, who hosts classes on premarital sex and marriage at Summit Ministries, wanted to speak truth in love, as Ephesians 4:15 says, and began the discussion by reading what the Biblical Counseling Coalition says about sex outside of marriage:

[P]remarital cohabitation has become common in the Church because many Christians have made today’s secular values their own. Our society cherishes ‘trying before buying,’ convenience at any cost, sex without rules, companionship without commitment, and relationship without responsibility — everything premarital cohabitation provides. Instead of questioning such values — if not downright opposing them — countless Christians have adopted them. It’s no wonder so many of them are living together before tying the knot.

Speaking about the saturation of unbiblical ideas about sex, pornography and relationships that Gen Zers and youth are exposed to, McDowell noted that, unlike the 1980s and ’90s when exposure was limited to select movies, MTV and a few other sources, today, youth have easy access to porn and are inundated with unhealthy messages.  

Continue reading “What’s Wrong With PreMarital Sex, Cohabitation and Watching Porn? Apologist Sean McDowell Answers – Critique: Some Christians Marketing Sexual Abstinence as “Purity in Jesus””

Acceptance (vs. Denial, Anger, or Should-ing) – Helps in Healing and Getting Through Painful Events and Dealing With Things You Cannot Change

Acceptance (vs. Denial, Anger, or Should-ing) – Helps in Healing and Getting Through Painful Events and Dealing With Things You Cannot Change

Disclaimer: All names have been changed in the post below to keep people’s identities anonymous.


One of the things I’ve noticed in the last few years is that when I’ve accepted a situation, whether something current or something from years ago that once bothered me a lot, is that it speeds up the recovery process.

I used to hold on tightly to people or dreams or hopes. In the last few years, I’ve gotten better at Letting Go.

(I’ve not arrived at perfection at this, but I have improved a lot in the last couple of years.)

Instead of constantly regretting, feeling sad or angry about a past incident, or that my life is not where I want it to be now, I’ve learned to accept my past and present, and that has definitely been good for my mental health – and I’m more able to enjoy each day as it is, instead of sitting around angry or upset that things aren’t how I had hoped or planned.

I don’t get as upset by set backs as I once did.

Continue reading “Acceptance (vs. Denial, Anger, or Should-ing) – Helps in Healing and Getting Through Painful Events and Dealing With Things You Cannot Change”

Fairfax County Library Puts ‘Gender Queer’ and ‘Lawn Boy’ Next to Bible in Holiday Reading Display’

Fairfax County Library Puts ‘Gender Queer’ and ‘Lawn Boy’ Next to Bible in Holiday Reading Display’

(Link): Fairfax County library puts ‘Gender Queer’ and ‘Lawn Boy’ next to Bible in ‘holiday reading display’

Virginia library removed display after outcry

by Tyler O’Neil
Dec 8, 2021

A library in Fairfax County, Virginia, created a book display featuring the notorious books “Gender Queer” and “Lawn Boy” – which parents claim feature pedophilia and obscene material – alongside the Bible but later removed the display after residents called it offensive.

 “The Dolley Madison Library holiday reading display was intended to highlight the freedom to read and the fact that many library patrons have more time during the holidays to do so,” Fairfax County Public Library Director Jessica Hudson told Fox News in a statement Tuesday. “It was not the intention of staff to create a display that could be construed as offensive. The display has been removed.”

The display featured gnomes with stocking-style hats paired with books. The gnomes with “Lawn Boy” and “Gender Queer” had bees on their stocking-hats, while the gnome with the Bible had a rainbow-colored hat, along with other rainbow paraphernalia. The display also featured quotes from controversial books, such as Salman Rushdie’s “The Satanic Verses.”

“Lawn Boy,” by Jonathan Evison, includes long sections of a boy reminiscing about explicit experiences he had at 10 years old. “Gender Queer: A Memoir,” by Maia Kobabe, includes photos of sexual acts between a boy and a man.

Concerned parents had spoken up at Fairfax County School Board meetings to protest the books’ presence in school libraries, but the school district reinstated the books after two committees ruled that they do not contain pedophilia or obscene material.

Continue reading “Fairfax County Library Puts ‘Gender Queer’ and ‘Lawn Boy’ Next to Bible in Holiday Reading Display’”

Christmas Morning House Fire Leaves Father and Two Children Dead, Wife and Oldest Child Injured

Christmas Morning House Fire Leaves Father and Two Children Dead, Wife and Oldest Child Injured

My condolences to this family.

One reason I’m posting this is that it goes to show that even if you do marry (if you’re a single adult who’d like to marry), it’s still no guarantee that being married with children is a permanent passport to Happiness.

A lot of Christians (especially the Nuclear Family obsessed) and to a degree, Hollywood (at least until the last few years), have been conveying this message for years and years that you can only obtain happiness, purpose, meaning or identity if you marry (and have children).

But what if you marry, and your spouse turns out to be abusive, self absorbed, or he or she develops cancer, dementia, or dies in a car accident or by some other means?

I had wanted to be married (I’ve pretty much made peace with being single in the meantime), but then I see news stories like this, and I wouldn’t want to be in this woman’s place, of having to navigate the deaths of a spouse and children, and now she has to parent the one remaining child by herself.

You can get married but then have it taken away in the blink of an eye by a car accident, house fire, heart attack, or god knows what else. This doesn’t mean that I’m anti-marriage, but I do want to keep a realistic perspective of it.

Aw, I see in the news story that two family pets (dogs) also died because of this fire – usually animals and people die from smoke inhalation, or they pass out from that, so they’re not alive to feel the flames, at least.

At any rate, this woman managed to get married, but now her husband and some children are gone, due to this house fire. She is single again.

(Link): Christmas Morning House Fire Leaves Father and Two Children Dead, Wife and Oldest Child Injured

The mother and oldest child were able to escape the flames
By Andrew Mark Miller | Fox News
Dec 25, 2021

A Dad and two of his sons have died after a house fire tore through their home on Christmas morning.

Authorities say the fire started at the home of the King family at 1:22 am Saturday in Quakertown, Pennsylvania and killed Eric King and his two young sons, Liam and Patrick, according to Fox 29 Philadelphia.

Eric King’s wife Kristin and the couple’s oldest son Brady were able to escape the flames while the rest of the family was trapped inside.

Continue reading “Christmas Morning House Fire Leaves Father and Two Children Dead, Wife and Oldest Child Injured”

Four in 10 Adults Between the Ages of 25 and 54 are Single, Up From 29% in 1990

Four in 10 Adults Between the Ages of 25 and 54 are Single, Up From 29% in 1990

(Link): Four in 10 Adults Between the Ages of 25 and 54 are Single, Up From 29% in 1990

by Sarah Todd
Nov. 9, 2021

The frustrations that single people encounter in a largely coupled-up world are well established. Less well-known—but just as pervasive—are the challenges faced by single people at the office.

The expectation that single people clock longer hours than their paired-up counterparts is one common complaint. “Lots of people I interviewed complained that their managers presumed they had extra time to stay at the office or take on extra projects because they don’t have family at home,” Eric Klinenberg, author of the 2013 book Going Solotold The Atlantic last month.

And in some cases, being single can affect a person’s job prospects.

Continue reading “Four in 10 Adults Between the Ages of 25 and 54 are Single, Up From 29% in 1990”

Study Suggests Why Religious Marriages Are Less Likely to End In Divorce by L. Blair

Study Suggests Why Religious Marriages Are Less Likely to End In Divorce

I’ve actually seen other studies over the years that say Christian marriages are more likely to end in divorce, especially the younger the couple were when they first married.

I don’t often see liberals harping on this so much (at least not so much in their professional or mainstream publications) to score Brownie Points in the Culture Wars as much as I do the secular or Christian conservatives.

I think many Christians want to keep “advertising” or marketing the faith (and/or the Bible) as something that, if you just try it, your life will be better and happier. But that isn’t always the case.

Sometimes Christian men end up being abusive towards their wives or committing adultery (I have (Link): many examples on this blog of this).

No where does the Bible say that being a Christian or putting faith in Jesus or the Bible will make a person immune from divorce, feeling lonely, suffering health problems, or whatever other problems in life, yet Christians keep promoting the faith as though this is its purpose.

Of course, if a faith cannot or does not help me in this life time (and being a devout Christian for over 35 years sure didn’t help me with my earthly problems), I don’t see the point in following that faith.

This article makes reference to Institute for Family Studies, and the noxious Bradford Wilcox, so take any thing they have to say with a grain of salt – they’re generally a bunch of marriage-worshippers – and Wilcox leans towards shaming singles for being single, or for trying to depict singleness as being horrible, wrong, sinful, or worse than being in hell.

Contra to what one of the people (is it Wilcox?) says (or seems to imply) in this article, churches are not hot-beds heavily populated by “marriage friendly” singles – not single men.

If you’re a single, Christian woman who has been advised by her family or church (as I was when younger) to be “equally yoked” and to consider a church a prime place to find eligible husband material, you know that the single women in most churches vastly out-number the single men.

Most men in most churches are either already married or are 83 years old with white hair.

(Link):  Study Suggests Why Religious Marriages Are Less Likely to End In Divorce

Excerpts:

Dec 21, 2021
by Leonardo Blair

Religious marriages are slightly less likely to end in divorce because religion tends to motivate less cohabitation, a known risk factor for divorce, a new research brief from the Institute of Family Studies suggests. But it’s not the only reason.

The brief, which crunches data from more than 53,000 women ages 15 to 49 from the National Survey of Family Growth from 1995 to 2019, shows how age at the time of marriage is also a factor.

And depending on when marriage happens for a woman, the impact of religion on divorce can have no effect.

While the IFS researchers couldn’t conclude how religion can foster a higher likelihood of stable marriages, they presented three possible explanations.

“Religion might induce people to ‘make lemons out of lemonade,’ it might give people institutional or community support, or it might positively alter the quality of romantic pairings,” they wrote.

Continue reading “Study Suggests Why Religious Marriages Are Less Likely to End In Divorce by L. Blair”

Inconsistent, Disappointing, and Cavalier Attitude Towards Sexism by Some Conservatives – Re: Woman Says A Man Groped Her Avatar in a Simulation

Inconsistent, Disappointing, and Cavalier Attitude Towards Sexism by Some Conservatives – Re: Woman Says A Man Groped Her Avatar in a Simulation

Most conservatives don’t support biological men being allowed into women’s only spaces, even if those men “identify as women.”  Most conservatives recognize how that is bad news for biological girls and biological women. (As a conservative myself, I agree!)

I often see male conservatives infuriated, alarmed, or incredulous over things like Democrats wanting to pass legislation to get women drafted into the military, or with biological men who identify as women (transwomen) getting spaces on women’s teams.

But so many conservative men, and a smattering of conservative women, often act dismissive of other forms of sexism.

Earlier today, I was on Twitter, I saw (Link): this Tweet by (Link): Seth Dillon, who I believe is a conservative (and possibly a Christian?).

Dillon was “quote Tweeting” a headline by the New York Post which reads, “Woman Claims She Was Virtually ‘Groped’ in Meta VR Platform.” Here is the link to the article itself on the Post.

Here is how part of that article, by Hannah Sparks, reads:

A beta tester has claimed she was virtually “groped” in the metaverse VR platform Horizon Worlds from Meta, the company formerly known as Facebook.

Meta revealed the incident on Dec. 1, saying it occurred on Nov. 26. The woman had reported the assault on the Horizon Worlds beta testing Facebook group.

“Sexual harassment is no joke on the regular internet, but being in VR adds another layer that makes the event more intense,” she wrote, according to the Verge. “Not only was I groped last night, but there were other people there who supported this behavior, which made me feel isolated in the Plaza,” the virtual environment’s central gathering space.

“Severe” encounters of online harassment — including physical threats, stalking and “repeated” harassment — are on the rise, according to a 2020 Pew Research poll, with the percentage of users reporting such incidents jumping from 15% in 2014 to 25% today. While much of it takes place on social media, VR is still nascent and already an apparent venue for harassment.

…Sexual harassment in virtual reality is sexual harassment in real life, full stop, experts have said.

“At the end of the day, the nature of virtual-reality spaces is such that it is designed to trick the user into thinking they are physically in a certain space, that their every bodily action is occurring in a 3-D environment,” Katherine Cross, a Ph.D. student researcher of online harassment at the University of Washington, told Technology Review.

“It’s part of the reason why emotional reactions can be stronger in that space, and why VR triggers the same internal nervous-system and psychological responses,” she added.
— end excerpt —

I am a conservative, not a woke-ster far leftist.

I don’t know how it is that so many conservatives are fine opposing sexism in some forms – such as biological men who claim to be women wanting entrance to women’s only bathrooms and so forth – but then turn around and mock a woman who discusses being sexually harassed in a virtual arena.

Continue reading “Inconsistent, Disappointing, and Cavalier Attitude Towards Sexism by Some Conservatives – Re: Woman Says A Man Groped Her Avatar in a Simulation”

The Ex Christian, Ex-Exvangelical, Now-Atheist Hits the Nail on the Head About Exvangelicals

The Ex Christian, Ex-Exvangelical, Now-Atheist Hits the Nail on the Head About Exvangelicals

I think this person, who calls herself Andy on Twitter, and says she went from being a Christian to an Ex-vangelical (also referred to as “Exvies”) to an atheist, is absolutely correct in her tweet below.

She says what I’ve been observing for a few years now with the people who post under the “Exvangelical” or “Empty The Pews” hash tags on Twitter – some of those who use these tags are ex Christians, or switched from being a conservative Christian over to being liberal or progressive.

From what I’ve seen of them – or just run of the mill liberal, leftist, or progressive Christians – they are just as hateful, nasty, critical, pious, and sanctimonious (they are so, so very sanctimonious that it’s positively nauseating) as the groups they criticize (usually conservative Christians), and in some cases even MORE SO.

I’ve mentioned this before in the context of Christian, progressive persons or groups such as Stephanie Drury’s “Stuff Christian Culture Likes” Facebook Group, I’ve had run ins with Christopher Stoop (is it Chrissy now?), and Nate Sparks.

These people tend to be just as, if not more, judgmental and condemning as the evangelical, Baptist, or fundamentalist Christians they complain about all the time on their blogs, podcasts, and social media.

Progressive Christians conflate their leftist causes and political views with the Christian faith itself all the time, yet they often criticize “white evangelicals” for voting for Trump, or for just being a Republican, or voting for, Republicans.

The progressives, for example, will dismiss any possibility that you can be a good Christian if you don’t support leftist positions such as CRT, Black Lives Matter, or biological men (“transwomen”) being permitted into women’s only spaces, etc

The hypocrisy just blows me away. And the progressives who sit around all smug mocking and judging conservative Christians are blind to this.

Not only were Andy’s observations spot on (you can read some of her Twitter comments farther below in this post), but some of the people who left her replies were also completely correct.

Continue reading “The Ex Christian, Ex-Exvangelical, Now-Atheist Hits the Nail on the Head About Exvangelicals”

Kyle Rittenhouse – False Reportage, Media Mistakes

Kyle Rittenhouse – False Reportage, Media Mistakes

Update, link off-site:

(Link): Left Melts Down Over Reception Rittenhouse Gets at Turning Point Festival


Much of the American coverage of the Rittenhouse story was so false and designed to fit into a liberal, far left narrative, that errors were made – details were either wrong or omitted (if the details made Rittenhouse look good).

The media coverage of Rittenhouse was so bad, so inaccurate (just like the Covington kid a few years ago), that during the trial, which was televised live, was the first time that many of his critics were, for the first time, hearing what really happened, and, the honest ones admitted in their tweets or articles that they had earlier got Rittenhouse wrong.

Some of the international media coverage was so bad, that this egregious mistake was apparently made: for some time, some international outlets were INCORRECTLY reporting that the men Rittenhouse shot were black men – they were not; they were white men.

Whether this was deliberate or an honest misunderstanding, I do not know, but it probably influenced how some people viewed Rittenhouse or what happened in Kenosha.

A lot of the liberal narrative did not mention in reportage that Rittenhouse was acting in self defense, that one or two of the guys were going to draw their firearms to kill him (one later admitted after the fact that yes, that is what he was trying to do and he wish he had murdered Rittenhouse), one guy, Huber, was beating Rittenhouse over the head with his skateboard (which can, yes, result in death, or in the man being able to knock Rittenhouse out to take his firearm if he so chooses).

Yet other media neglected to mention that some of the men shot and killed by Rittenhouse – in self defense – had criminal backgrounds.

One of the men, Joseph Rosenbaum, was a serial child rapist.

What I read a few months back is that Rosenbaum had dated single women with children for the express purpose of gaining access to the children so he could molest or rape them, which he did. (I doubt any or many of those victims mind that he was taken out by Rittenhouse.) 

You can read more about the errors and biases that tarnished the media coverage at the links below:

(Link): Joseph Rosenbaum: Sex Offender 2002 Arizona Criminal Complaint

Newly released Joseph Rosenbaum sex offender documents obtained by Wisconsin Right Now from the Pima County (Arizona) Clerk of Courts confirm Joseph Rosenbaum was charged by a grand jury with 11 counts of child molestation and inappropriate sexual activity around children, including anal rape.

The victims were five boys ranging in age from nine to 11 years old.

(Link): Everything the Media Told You About Kyle Rittenhouse Was Wrong

Excerpts:

At trial, these assertions didn’t materialize.

No, the Washington Post admitted, there wasn’t any evidence tying Rittenhouse to white supremacists.

No, the gun didn’t actually cross state lines, as so much of the reporting around the trial suggested. No, he hadn’t been the one to fire the first shot.

No, even Gaige Grosskreutz, the third man whom Rittenhouse shot in self-defense, admitted that Rittenhouse hadn’t shot him until Grosskreutz pointed his own gun (for which he no longer had a valid concealed-carry permit) at Rittenhouse.

And, finally, yes, Kyle Rittenhouse had been acting in self-defense.

Most of this information was publicly available long before the trial, overlooked or ignored in favor of red herrings about race and the misdeeds of the former president. If Rittenhouse sues for defamation, it won’t come as a shock.

(Link): Bari Weiss dismantles media’s falsehoods on Kyle Rittenhouse: This was a ‘disinformation campaign’

(Link): Kyle Rittenhouse didn’t illegally bring a gun across state lines and 5 other myths surrounding the trial debunked

Continue reading “Kyle Rittenhouse – False Reportage, Media Mistakes”

Pop Singer Billie Eilish Calls Porn A ‘Disgrace’ To Women, Says It ‘Destroyed’ Her Brain

Pop Singer Billie Eilish Calls Porn A ‘Disgrace’ To Women, Says It ‘Destroyed’ Her Brain

(Link):  Billie Eilish says watching porn from age 11 ‘really destroyed my brain’

Excerpts:

Grammy-winning singer Billie Eilish has spoken about an addiction to watching pornography, starting at age 11, and how it gave her nightmares and messed her up when she started dating.

Eilish, who turns 20 on Saturday, was speaking on “The Howard Stern Show” on Sirius XM radio on Monday.

“I think porn is a disgrace. I used to watch a lot of porn, to be honest. I started watching porn when I was, like, 11,” the “Bad Guy” singer said, saying it helped her feel as if she were cool and “one of the guys.”

“I think it really destroyed my brain and I feel incredibly devastated that I was exposed to so much porn,” she added, saying she suffered nightmares because some of the content she watched was so violent and abusive.

Eilish, who was homeschooled in Los Angeles and has seven Grammy Awards, is known for her often dark lyrics.

(Link):  Billie Eilish Talked About How The First Few Times She Had Sex Were Negatively Impacted From Watching Porn At A Young Age

(Link): Billie Eilish Calls Porn A ‘Disgrace’ To Women, Says It ‘Destroyed’ Her Brain

Dec 14, 2021
By Madeline Osburn

The 19-year-old Grammy award-winning singer Billie Eilish said pornography warped her views of sex and relationships after she began watching it when she was just 11 years old. “It destroyed my brain,” she said on “The Howard Stern Show” on Monday.

Continue reading “Pop Singer Billie Eilish Calls Porn A ‘Disgrace’ To Women, Says It ‘Destroyed’ Her Brain”